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unzip で解凍したファイル名が文字化け

unzip で解凍したファイル名が文字化け

 
UbuntuなどUNIX/linux系のOSでzipファイルを解凍したら、ファイル名が文字化けした時の対処方です。

文字のエンコード

Windows で扱う文字は、「Shift-JIS」が基本になります。UbuntuなどのUNIX/Linux系のOS は、「UTF-8」を使用しています。エンコードが違う事で今回のような文字化けが起こったりします。

具体的な対処方は、
1 文字化けのまま unzip で解凍。
2 convmv コマンドで一括でファイル名のエンコードを行う。

convmv -r -f shift_jis -t utf-8 ./* --notest

ファイル名のエンコーディングを変換するコマンド convmv

ファイル名のエンコーディングを変換する。

$ convmv -r -f –notest utf8 -t sjis [圧縮したいファイル名]
-f 変換元のエンコーディングを指定する。
-t 変換先のエンコーディングを指定する。
-r ディレクトリ配下までたどって変更する。-rを指定しない場合はディレクトリをたどらない。
–notest 実際にファイル名を変更する。–notest を指定しない場合は、表示のみ。
–list 使用可能なエンコーディングの一覧を表示する。この出力からエンコーディングを選んで、-f や-t に指定する。

$ convmv -r -f shift_jis -t utf-8 ./* –notest

CONVMV(1) CONVMV(1)

NAME
convmv – converts filenames from one encoding to another

SYNOPSIS
convmv [options] FILE(S) … DIRECTORY(S)

OPTIONS
-f ENCODING
specify the current encoding of the filename(s) from which should be converted

-t ENCODING
specify the encoding to which the filename(s) should be converted

-i interactive mode (ask y/n for each action)

-r recursively go through directories

–nfc
target files will be normalization form C for UTF-8 (Linux etc.)

–nfd
target files will be normalization form D for UTF-8 (OS X etc.).

–qfrom , –qto
be more quiet about the “from” or “to” of a rename (if it screws up your terminal e.g.). This will in fact do nothing else than replace
any non-ASCII character (bytewise) with ? and any control character with * on printout, this does not affect rename operation itself.

–exec command
execute the given command. You have to quote the command and #1 will be substituted by the old, #2 by the new filename. Using this
option link targets will stay untouched. Have in mind that #1 and #2 will be quoted by convmv already, you must not add extra quotation
marks around them.

Example:

convmv -f latin1 -t utf-8 -r –exec “echo #1 should be renamed to #2” path/to/files

–list
list all available encodings. To get support for more Chinese or Japanese encodings install the Perl HanExtra or JIS2K Encode packages.

–lowmem
keep memory footprint low by not creating a hash of all files. This disables checking if symlink targets are in subtree. Symlink target
pointers will be converted regardlessly. If you convert multiple hundredthousands or millions of files the memory usage of convmv might
grow quite high. This option would help you out in that case.

–nosmart
by default convmv will detect if a filename is already UTF8 encoded and will skip this file if conversion from some charset to UTF8
should be performed. “–nosmart” will also force conversion to UTF-8 for such files, which might result in “double encoded UTF-8” (see
section below).

–fixdouble
using the “–fixdouble” option convmv does only convert files which will still be UTF-8 encoded after conversion. That’s useful for
fixing double-encoded UTF-8 files. All files which are not UTF-8 or will not result in UTF-8 after conversion will not be touched. Also
see chapter “How to undo double UTF-8 …” below.

–notest
Needed to actually rename the files. By default convmv will just print what it wants to do.

–parsable
This is an advanced option that people who want to write a GUI front end will find useful (some others maybe, too). It will convmv make
print out what it would do in an easy parsable way. The first column contains the action or some kind of information, the second column
mostly contains the file that is to be modified and if appropriate the third column contains the modified value. Each column is
separated by \0\n (nullbyte newline). Each row (one action) is separated by \0\0\n (nullbyte nullbyte newline).

–run-parsable
This option can be used to blindly execute the output of a previous –parsable run. This way it’s possible to rename a huge amount of
file in a minimum of time.

–no-preserve-mtimes
modifying filenames usually causes the parent directory’s mtime being updated. Since version 2 convmv by default resets the mtime to
the old value. If your filesystem supports sub-second resolution the sub-second part of the atime and mtime will be lost as Perl does
not yet support that. With this option you can disable the preservation of the mtimes.

–replace
if the file to which shall be renamed already exists, it will be overwritten if the other file content is equal.

–unescape
this option will remove this ugly % hex sequences from filenames and turn them into (hopefully) nicer 8-bit characters. After
–unescape you might want to do a charset conversion. This sequences like %20 etc. are sometimes produced when downloading via http or
ftp.

–upper , –lower
turn filenames into all upper or all lower case. When the file is not ASCII-encoded, convmv expects a charset to be entered via the -f
switch.

–map=some-extra-mapping
apply some custom character mappings, currently supported are:

ntfs-sfm(-undo), ntfs-sfu(-undo) for the mapping of illegal ntfs characters for Linux or Macintosh cifs clients (see MS KB 117258 also
mapchars mount option of mount.cifs on Linux).

ntfs-pretty(-undo) for for the mapping of illegal ntfs characters to pretty legal Japanese versions of them.

See the map_get_newname() function how to easily add own mappings if needed. Let me know if you think convmv is missing some useful
mapping here.

–dotlessi
care about the dotless i/I issue. A lowercase version of “I” will also be dotless while an uppercase version of “i” will also be
dotted. This is an issue for Turkish and Azeri.

By the way: The superscript dot of the letter i was added in the Middle Ages to distinguish the letter (in manuscripts) from adjacent
vertical strokes in such letters as u, m, and n. J is a variant form of i which emerged at this time and subsequently became a separate
letter.

–caseful-sz
let convmv convert the sz ligature (U+00DF) to the uppercase version (U+1E9E) and vice versa. As of 2017 most fs case mapping tables
don’t treat those two code points as case equivalents. Thus the default of convmv is to treat it caseless for now also (unless this
option is used).

–help
print a short summary of available options

–dump-options
print a list of all available options

DESCRIPTION
convmv is meant to help convert a single filename, a directory tree and the contained files or a whole filesystem into a different
encoding. It just converts the filenames, not the content of the files. A special feature of convmv is that it also takes care of symlinks,
also converts the symlink target pointer in case the symlink target is being converted, too.

All this comes in very handy when one wants to switch over from old 8-bit locales to UTF-8 locales. It is also possible to convert
directories to UTF-8 which are already partly UTF-8 encoded. convmv is able to detect if certain files are UTF-8 encoded and will skip them
by default. To turn this smartness off use the “–nosmart” switch.

Filesystem issues
Almost all POSIX filesystems do not care about how filenames are encoded, here are some exceptions:

HFS+ on OS X / Darwin

Linux and (most?) other Unix-like operating systems use the so called normalization form C (NFC) for its UTF-8 encoding by default but do
not enforce this. Darwin, the base of the Macintosh OS enforces normalization form D (NFD), where a few characters are encoded in a
different way. On OS X it’s not possible to create NFC UTF-8 filenames because this is prevented at filesystem layer. On HFS+ filenames
are internally stored in UTF-16 and when converted back to UTF-8, for the underlying BSD system to be handable, NFD is created. See
http://developer.apple.com/qa/qa2001/qa1173.html for defails. I think it was a very bad idea and breaks many things under OS X which expect
a normal POSIX conforming system. Anywhere else convmv is able to convert files from NFC to NFD or vice versa which makes interoperability
with such systems a lot easier.

JFS

If people mount JFS partitions with iocharset=utf8, there is a similar problem, because JFS is designed to store filenames internally in
UTF-16, too; that is because Linux’ JFS is really JFS2, which was a rewrite of JFS for OS/2. JFS partitions should always be mounted with
iocharset=iso8859-1, which is also the default with recent 2.6.6 kernels. If this is not done, JFS does not behave like a POSIX filesystem
and it might happen that certain files cannot be created at all, for example filenames in ISO-8859-1 encoding. Only when interoperation
with OS/2 is needed iocharset should be set according to your used locale charmap.

NFS4

Despite other POSIX filesystems RFC3530 (NFS 4) mandates UTF-8 but also says: “The nfs4_cs_prep profile does not specify a normalization
form. A later revision of this specification may specify a particular normalization form.” In other words, if you want to use NFS4 you
might find the conversion and normalization features of convmv quite useful.

FAT/VFAT and NTFS

NTFS and VFAT (for long filenames) use UTF-16 internally to store filenames. You should not need to convert filenames if you mount one of
those filesystems. Use appropriate mount options instead!

How to undo double UTF-8 (or other) encoded filenames
Sometimes it might happen that you “double-encoded” certain filenames, for example the file names already were UTF-8 encoded and you
accidently did another conversion from some charset to UTF-8. You can simply undo that by converting that the other way round. The from-
charset has to be UTF-8 and the to-charset has to be the from-charset you previously accidently used. If you use the “–fixdouble” option
convmv will make sure that only files will be processed that will still be UTF-8 encoded after conversion and it will leave non-UTF-8 files
untouched. You should check to get the correct results by doing the conversion without “–notest” before, also the “–qfrom” option might
be helpful, because the double utf-8 file names might screw up your terminal if they are being printed – they often contain control
sequences which do funny things with your terminal window. If you are not sure about the charset which was accidently converted from, using
“–qfrom” is a good way to fiddle out the required encoding without destroying the file names finally.

How to repair Samba files
When in the smb.conf (of Samba 2.x) there hasn’t been set a correct “character set” variable, files which are created from Win* clients are
being created in the client’s codepage, e.g. cp850 for western european languages. As a result of that the files which contain non-ASCII
characters are screwed up if you “ls” them on the Unix server. If you change the “character set” variable afterwards to iso8859-1, newly
created files are okay, but the old files are still screwed up in the Windows encoding. In this case convmv can also be used to convert the
old Samba-shared files from cp850 to iso8859-1.

By the way: Samba 3.x finally maps to UTF-8 filenames by default, so also when you migrate from Samba 2 to Samba 3 you might have to
convert your file names.

Netatalk interoperability issues
When Netatalk is being switched to UTF-8 which is supported in version 2 then it is NOT sufficient to rename the file names. There needs to
be done more. See http://netatalk.sourceforge.net/2.0/htmldocs/upgrade.html#volumes-and-filenames and the uniconv utility of Netatalk for
details.

SEE ALSO
locale(1) utf-8(7) charsets(7)

BUGS
no bugs or fleas known

DONATE
You can support convmv by doing a donation, see

AUTHOR
Bjoern JACKE

Send mail to bjoern [at] j3e.de for bug reports and suggestions.

perl v5.26.1 2017-12-10 CONVMV(1)

 
 

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